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Test Bank (Complete Download) for Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry, 10th Edition, Morris Hein, Scott Pattison, Susan Arena, ISBN: 0470598808, ISBN : 9780470913192, ISBN : 9780470917749, ISBN : 9780470598801, Instantly Downloadable Test Bank, Complete (ALL CHAPTERS) TestBank

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Table of Contents

1 An Introduction to Chemistry 1

1.1 Why Study Chemistry? 2

1.2 The Nature of Chemistry 2

1.3 Thinking Like a Chemist 2

1.4 A Scientific Approach to Problem Solving 3

Molecular Gastronomy 4

1.5 The Scientific Method 4

1.6 The Particulate Nature of Matter 5

1.7 Physical States of Matter 6

1.8 Classifying Matter 8

Review 10

Review Questions 11

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises 12

2 Standards for Measurement 13

2.1 Scientific Notation 14

2.2 Measurement and Uncertainty 15

2.3 Significant Figures 17

2.4 Significant Figures in Calculations 18

2.5 The Metric System 21

2.6 Dimensional Analysis 23

Keeping Track of Units 27

2.7 Measuring Mass and Volume 27

Setting Standards 29

2.8 Measurement of Temperature 31

Taking the Temperature of Old Faithful 33

2.9 Density 34

Review 37

Review Questions 39

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 39

Answers to Practice Exercises 42

3 Elements and Compounds 43

3.1 Elements 44

3.2 Distribution of Elements 44

3.3 Names of the Elements 46

3.4 Symbols of the Elements 46

3.5 Introduction to the Periodic Table 48

Elements on UTube? 48

3.6 Elements in Their Natural States 50

3.7 Elements That Exist as Diatomic Molecules 50

Using Oxygen to Revive Damaged Art 51

3.8 Compounds 52

3.9 Chemical Formulas 53

Cars: Is Hydrogen the Answer? 54

Review 56

Review Questions 58

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 58

Answers to Practice Exercises 60

4 Properties of Matter 61

4.1 Properties of Substances 62

Making Money 63

4.2 Physical Changes 64

4.3 Chemical Changes 64

4.4 Conservation of Mass 66

4.5 Learning to Solve Problems 67

4.6 Energy 67

4.7 Heat: Quantitative Measurement 68

Popping Popcorn 70

4.8 Energy in Chemical Changes 71

4.9 Conservation of Energy 71

4.10 Energy in the Real World 72

Review 73

Review Questions 74

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 74

Answers to Practice Exercises 77

Review for Chapters 1–4 78

5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure 81

5.1 Early Thoughts 82

5.2 Dalton’s Model of the Atom 82

5.3 Composition of Compounds 83

5.4 The Nature of Electric Charge 84

5.5 Discovery of Ions 84

5.6 Subatomic Parts of the Atom 85

5.7 The Nuclear Atom 87

5.8 Isotopes of the Elements 89

Isotope Detectives 91

5.9 Atomic Mass 91

Review 94

Review Questions 95

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 95

Answers to Practice Exercises 97

6 Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds 98

6.1 Common and Systematic Names 99

6.2 Elements and Ions 99

What’s in a Name? 101

6.3 Writing Formulas from Names of Ionic Compounds 103

6.4 Naming Binary Compounds 105

6.5 Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 111

6.6 Acids 112

Review 114

Review Questions 115

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 115

Answers to Practice Exercises 118

Review for Chapters 5–6 119

7 Quantitative Composition of Compounds 121

7.1 The Mole 122

7.2 Molar Mass of Compounds 126

7.3 Percent Composition of Compounds 129

7.4 Empirical Formula versus Molecular Formula 132

Vanishing Coins? 133

7.5 Calculating Empirical Formulas 134

7.6 Calculating the Molecular Formula from the Empirical Formula 137

Review 138

Review Questions 139

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 139

Answers to Practice Exercises 142

8 Chemical Equations 143

8.1 The Chemical Equation 144

8.2 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 145

8.3 Information in a Chemical Equation 150

8.4 Types of Chemical Equations 151

CO Poisoning—A Silent Killer 152

8.5 Heat in Chemical Reactions 157

8.6 Global Warming: The Greenhouse Effect 160

Decreasing Carbon Footprints 161

Review 163

Review Questions 164

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 164

Answers to Practice Exercises 167

9 Calculations from Chemical Equations 168

9.1 A Short Review 169

9.2 Introduction to Stoichiometry 169

9.3 Mole–Mole Calculations 171

9.4 Mole–Mass Calculations 174

9.5 Mass–Mass Calculations 176

Trans-forming Fats 230

Goal! A Spherical Molecule 231

11.7 Lewis Structures of Compounds 231

11.8 Complex Lewis Structures 235

11.9 Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 236

11.10 Molecular Shape 237

Strong Enough to Stop a Bullet? 238

11.11 The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Model 238

Review 242

Review Questions 244

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 244

Answers to Practice Exercises 247

Review for Chapters 10–11 248

12 The Gaseous State of Matter 251

12.1 General Properties 252

12.2 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory 252

12.3 Measurement of Pressure of Gases 254

12.4 Dependence of Pressure on Number of Molecules and Temperature 255

12.5 Boyle’s Law 257

12.6 Charles’ Law 260

12.7 Gay-Lussac’s Law 263

12.8 Combined Gas Laws 264

12.9 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 267

Messenger Molecules 268

12.10 Avogadro’s Law 269

12.11 Mole–Mass–Volume Relationships of Gases 270

12.12 Density of Gases 272

12.13 Ideal Gas Law 273

12.14 Gas Stoichiometry 275

12.15 Real Gases 279

Wetland Blanket for Global Warming 281

9.6 Limiting-Reactant and Yield Calculations 177

A Shrinking Technology 178

Review 184

Review Questions 185

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 186

Answers to Practice Exercises 190

Review for Chapters 7–9 191

10 Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table 194

10.1 A Brief History 195

10.2 Electromagnetic Radiation 195

You Light Up My Life 196

10.3 The Bohr Atom 196

10.4 Energy Levels of Electrons 198

Atomic Clocks 200

10.5 Atomic Structures of the First 18 Elements 200

10.6 Electron Structures and the Periodic Table 203

Collecting the Elements 204

Review 208

Review Questions 209

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 210

Answers to Practice Exercises 212

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 213

11.1 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 214

11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 217

11.3 The Ionic Bond: Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 218

11.4 Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds 224

11.5 The Covalent Bond: Sharing Electrons 226

11.6 Electronegativity 227

Review 282

Review Questions 285

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 286

Answers to Practice Exercises 289

13 Properties of Liquids 290

13.1 What Is a Liquid? 291

13.2 Evaporation 291

13.3 Vapor Pressure 292

13.4 Surface Tension 293

13.5 Boiling Point 294

Chemical Eye Candy 296

13.6 Freezing Point or Melting Point 296

13.7 Changes of State 297

13.8 The Hydrogen Bond 298

How Sweet It Is! 300

13.9 Hydrates 301

13.10 Water, a Unique Liquid 303

13.11 Water Purification 307

Quenching the Thirst for Clean Water 309

Review 310

Review Questions 311

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 313

Answers to Practice Exercises 315

14 Solutions 316

14.1 General Properties of Solutions 317

Exploding Silicon 318

14.2 Solubility 318

14.3 Factors Related to Solubility 319

14.4 Rate of Dissolving Solids 323

14.5 Solutions: A Reaction Medium 324

14.6 Concentration of Solutions 325

14.7 Colligative Properties of Solutions 333

The Scoop on Ice Cream 337

14.8 Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure 338

Review 340

Review Questions 341

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 343

Answers to Practice Exercises 346

Review for Chapters 12–14 347

15 Acids, Bases, and Salts 351

15.1 Acids and Bases 352

15.2 Reactions of Acids 355

15.3 Reactions of Bases 356

15.4 Salts 356

A Cool Fizz 357

15.5 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 357

15.6 Dissociation and Ionization of Electrolytes 358

15.7 Strong and Weak Electrolytes 360

15.8 Ionization of Water 362

15.9 Introduction to pH 363

In the Pink—A Sign of Corrosion 365

15.10 Neutralization 366

15.11 Writing Net Ionic Equations 368

15.12 Acid Rain 371

15.13 Colloids 372

Foam Cars—Wave of the Future? 373

15.14 Properties of Colloids 374

15.15 Applications of Colloidal Properties 374

Review 375

Review Questions 377

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 377

Answers to Practice Exercises 380

16 Chemical Equilibrium 381

16.1 Reversible Reactions 382

16.2 Rates of Reaction 382

16.3 Chemical Equilibrium 384

16.4 Le Chaˆ telier’s Principle 384

New Ways in Fighting Cavities and Avoiding the Drill 385

16.5 Effect of Concentration on Equilibrium 386

16.6 Effect of Volume on Equilibrium 388

16.7 Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium 390

16.8 Effect of Catalysts on Equilibrium 391

16.9 Equilibrium Constants 391

16.10 Ion Product Constant for Water 393

16.11 Ionization Constants 395

16.12 Solubility Product Constant 398

16.13 Acid–Base Properties of Salts 401

16.14 Buffer Solutions: The Control of pH 401

Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the Blood 402

Review 404

Review Questions 405

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 406

Answers to Practice Exercises 410

17 Oxidation-Reduction 411

17.1 Oxidation Number 412

17.2 Oxidation–Reduction 415

17.3 Balancing Oxidation–Reduction Equations 416

17.4 Balancing Ionic Redox Equations 419

Sensitive Sunglasses 421

17.5 Activity Series of Metals 423

17.6 Electrolytic and Voltaic Cells 425

Superbattery Uses

Hungry Iron Ions 430

Review 431

Review Questions 433

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 434

Answers to Practice Exercises 436

Review for Chapters 15–17 437

18 Nuclear Chemistry 441

18.1 Discovery of Radioactivity 442

18.2 Natural Radioactivity 443

18.3 Alpha Particles, Beta Particles, and Gamma Rays 445

18.4 Radioactive Disintegration Series 448

18.5 Transmutation of Elements 449

18.6 Artificial Radioactivity 450

18.7 Measurement of Radioactivity 450

18.8 Nuclear Fission 451

Does Your Food Glow in the Dark? 452

18.9 Nuclear Power 453

18.10 The Atomic Bomb 455

18.11 Nuclear Fusion 456

18.12 Mass-Energy Relationship in Nuclear Reactions 457

18.13 Transuranium Elements 458

18.14 Biological Effects of Radiation 458

A Window into Living Organisms 459

Review 460

Review Questions 462

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 463

Answers to Practice Exercises 465

Review for Chapter 18 465

19 Organic Chemistry: Saturated Hydrocarbons 466

19.1 Organic Chemistry: History and Scope 467

19.2 The Carbon Atom: Bonding and Shape 468

19.3 Organic Formulas and Molecular Models 469

19.4 Classifying Organic Compounds 471

19.5 Hydrocarbons 472

19.6 Saturated Hydrocarbons: Alkanes 473

19.7 Carbon Bonding in Alkanes 474

19.8 Isomerism 475

19.9 Naming Organic Compounds 478

19.10 Introduction to the Reactions of Carbon 484

19.11 Reactions of Alkanes 485

Health, Anesthesia, and Alkyl Halides 488

19.12 Sources of Alkanes 491

19.13 Gasoline: A Major Petroleum Product 491

Gasoline, a Renewable Fuel? 493

19.14 Cycloalkanes 494

Review 497

Review Questions 499

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercise 499

Answers to Practice Exercises 503

20 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 505

20.1 Bonding in Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 506

20.2 Nomenclature of Alkenes 509

20.3 Geometric Isomerism in Alkenes 511

20.4 Cycloalkenes 517

20.5 Preparation and Physical Properties of Alkenes 518

20.6 Chemical Properties of Alkenes 520

20.7 Alkynes: Nomenclature and Preparation 525

20.8 Physical and Chemical Properties of Alkynes 526

20.9 Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Structure 528

20.10 Naming Aromatic Compounds 530

Health and Sunscreens 532

20.11 Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 535

Graphene—Another Amazing Form of Carbon 536

20.12 Sources and Physical Properties of Aromatic Hydrocarbons 536

20.13 Chemical Properties of Aromatic Hydrocarbons 537

Review 539

Review Questions 541

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 541

Answers to Practice Exercises 545

21 Polymers: Macromolecules 547

21.1 Macromolecules 548

21.2 Synthetic Polymers 548

21.3 Polymer Types 549

21.4 Addition Polymerization 550

Health and Plasticizers 552

21.5 Addition Polymers: Use and Reuse (Recycling) 553

21.6 Butadiene Polymers 554

Timed-Release Degradation—A Plastic That Self-Destructs 555

21.7 Geometric Isomerism in Polymers 557

Review 558

Review Questions 559

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercise 559

Answers to Practice Exercises 560

Review for Chapters 19–21 561

22 Alcohols, Ethers, Phenols, and Thiols 565

22.1 Functional Groups 566

22.2 Classification of Alcohols 566

22.3 Naming Alcohols 568

22.4 Physical Properties of Alcohols 570

22.5 Chemical Properties of Alcohols 572

Menthol—A Cool Chemical 576

22.6 Common Alcohols 580

22.7 Phenols 584

Health and Polyphenols 586

22.8 Properties of Phenols 586

22.9 Production of Phenol 587

22.10 Ethers 588

22.11 Structures and Properties of Ethers 590

22.12 Preparation of Ethers 591

22.13 Thiols 592

Review 593

Review Questions 595

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises

Challenge Exercise 595

Answers to Practice Exercises 600

23 Aldehydes and Ketones 602

23.1 Structures of Aldehydes and Ketones 603

23.2 Naming Aldehydes and Ketones 603

23.3 Bonding and Physical Properties 607

Health, Muscle Rubs, and Camphor 608

23.4 Chemical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones 610

Microbial Chemical Warfare and Antibiotic Resistance 618

23.5 Common Aldehydes and Ketones 619

23.6 Condensation Polymers 621

Review 622

Review Questions 623

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercise 624

Answers to Practice Exercise 628

Review for Chapters 22–23 629

24 Carboxylic Acids and Esters 634

24.1 Carboxylic Acids 635

24.2 Nomenclature and Sources of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids 635

24.3 Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids 638

24.4 Classification of Carboxylic Acids 639

Health and MSG 643

24.5 Preparation of Carboxylic Acids 644

24.6 Chemical Properties of Carboxylic Acids 646

24.7 Nomenclature of Esters 648

A “Truly Green” Plastic 651

24.8 Occurrence and Physical Properties of Esters 652

24.9 Polyesters: Condensation Polymers 652

24.10 Chemical Properties of Esters 653

24.11 Glycerol Esters 654

24.12 Soaps and Synthetic Detergents 657

24.13 Esters and Anhydrides of Phosphoric Acid 660

Review 662

Review Questions 664

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 664

Answers to Practice Exercises 669

25 Amides and Amines: Organic Nitrogen Compounds 670

25.1 Amides: Nomenclature and Physical Properties 671

25.2 Chemical Properties of Amides 674

25.3 Polyamides: Condensation Polymers 675

25.4 Urea 676

25.5 Amines: Nomenclature and Physical Properties 677

25.6 Preparation of Amines 681

25.7 Chemical Properties of Amines 682

Supersolvents 684

25.8 Sources and Uses of Selected Amines 685

Health, Caffeine, and Learning 687

Review 688

Review Questions 690

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercise 690

Answers to Practice Exercises 694

Review for Chapters 24–25 695

26 Stereoisomerism 700

26.1 Review of Isomerism 701

26.2 Plane-Polarized Light 701

26.3 Optical Activity 703

26.4 Fischer Projection Formulas 704

26.5 Enantiomers 706

What a Difference a Shape Makes 711

26.6 Racemic Mixtures 711

26.7 Diastereomers and Meso Compounds 713

Health and the Chiral Switch 714

Review 717

Review Questions 718

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercise 718

Answers to Practice Exercises 723

27 Carbohydrates 724

27.1 Carbohydrates: A First Class of Biochemicals 725

27.2 Classification of Carbohydrates 726

27.3 Importance of Carbohydrates for Life 728

27.4 Monosaccharides 729

Health and the “Sugar High” 730

27.5 Structure of Glucose and Other Aldoses 731

27.6 Cyclic Structure of Glucose; Mutarotation 734

27.7 Hemiacetals and Acetals 737

27.8 Structures of Galactose and Fructose 738

27.9 Pentoses 739

27.10 Disaccharides 741

27.11 Structures and Properties of Disaccharides 741

27.12 Sweeteners and Diet 744

27.13 Redox Reactions of Monosaccharides 746

27.14 Polysaccharides Derived from Glucose 750

Screening for Cancer: Finding a Needle in a Haystack 753

27.15 Complex Polysaccharides 755

Review 756

Review Questions 759

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 759

Answers to Practice Exercises 762

28 Lipids 763

28.1 Lipids: Hydrophobic Molecules 764

28.2 Classification of Lipids 765

28.3 Simple Lipids 765

28.4 Fats in Metabolism 770

28.5 Compound Lipids 771

28.6 Steroids 775

28.7 Hydrophobic Lipids and Biology 776

Stealth Drug Delivery 778

Health, Skin, and Transdermal Patches 782

Review 782

Review Questions 784

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercise 784

Answers to Practice Exercises 787

Review for Chapters 26–28 788

29 Amino Acids, Polypeptides, and Proteins 793

29.1 The Structure–Function Connection 794

29.2 The Nature of Amino Acids 795

29.3 Essential Amino Acids 797

29.4 D-Amino Acids and L-Amino Acids 798

29.5 Amphoterism 798

29.6 Formation of Polypeptides 800

Health, Growth Factors, and Cancer 801

29.7 Protein Structure 804

29.8 Protein Functions 807

29.9 Some Examples of Proteins and Their Structures 808

Molecular Machines 816

29.10 Loss of Protein Structure 817

29.11 Tests for Proteins and Amino Acids 819

29.12 Determination of the Primary Structure of Polypeptides 822

Review 824

Review Questions 827

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercise 827

Answers to Practice Exercises 830

30 Enzymes 832

30.1 Molecular Accelerators 833

30.2 Rates of Chemical Reactions 835

30.3 Enzyme Kinetics 836

30.4 Industrial-Strength Enzymes 838

30.5 Enzyme Active Site 840

Health and Cytochrome P450 841

30.6 Temperature and pH Effects on Enzyme Catalysis 843

30.7 Enzyme Regulation 844

Aspirin and Stroke: A Very Potent Enzyme Inhibitor 845

Review 846

Review Questions 848

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercise 848

Answers to Practice Exercises 850

31 Nucleic Acids and Heredity 851

31.1 Molecules of Heredity—A Link 852

31.2 Bases and Nucleosides 852

31.3 Nucleotides: Phosphate Esters 855

31.4 High-Energy Nucleotides 856

31.5 Polynucleotides; Nucleic Acids 857

31.6 Structure of DNA 859

31.7 DNA Replication 862

The Double Helix Revisited 865

Fingerprints in the Genes 866

31.8 RNA: Genetic Transcription 867

Health and RNA 870

31.9 The Genetic Code 871

31.10 Genes and Medicine 872

31.11 Biosynthesis of Proteins 874

31.12 Changing the Genome: Mutations and Genetic Engineering 877

Review 879

Review Questions 882

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercise 882

Answers to Practice Exercises 884

Review for Chapters 29–31 885

32 Nutrition 890

32.1 Nutrients 891

32.2 Diet 892

32.3 Energy in the Diet 892

32.4 Carbohydrates in the Diet 894

Health and Fiber 895

32.5 Fats in the Diet 896

32.6 Proteins in the Diet 897

32.7 Vitamins 897

32.8 Minerals 900

32.9 Water 901

32.10 Nutrition Content Labeling 901

32.11 Food Additives 903

32.12 A Balanced Diet 904

Longevity and Diet 905

32.13 Human Digestion 907

32.14 Absorption 911

32.15 Liver Function 911

Review 913

Review Questions 915

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercise 915

Answers to Practice Exercises 917

33 Bioenergetics 918

33.1 Energy Changes in Living Organisms 919

33.2 Metabolism and Cell Structure 920

33.3 Biological Oxidation–Reduction: Energy Delivery 921

33.4 Molecular Oxygen and Metabolism 925

33.5 High-Energy Phosphate Bonds 926

33.6 Phosphorylation: Energy Conversion 928

Health, Muscles, and Creatine 933

33.7 Photosynthesis 934

Review 935

Review Questions 936

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercise 937

Answers to Practice Exercises 938

34 Carbohydrate Metabolism 939

34.1 Metabolic Pathways 940

34.2 Exercise and Energy Metabolism 942

34.3 Carbohydrate Metabolism and Cooperation 942

34.4 Anaerobic Sequence 945

Health, Carbohydrate Metabolism, and Cancer 947

34.5 Citric Acid Cycle

(Aerobic Sequence) 949

34.6 Gluconeogenesis 952

34.7 Overview of Complex Metabolic Pathways 953

34.8 Hormones 953

34.9 Blood Glucose and Hormones 956

Review 958

Review Questions 959

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises

Challenge Exercise 960

Answers to Practice Exercises 962

35 Metabolism of Lipids and Proteins 963

35.1 Metabolic Energy Sources: Organs Working Together for the Common Good 964

35.2 Fatty Acid Oxidation (Beta Oxidation) 965

Health and Abdominal Fat 968

35.3 Fat Storage and Utilization 969

35.4 Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids (Lipogenesis) 969

35.5 Ketone Bodies 971

Ketone Bodies and Low Carbohydrate Diets 972

35.6 Amino Acid Metabolism 973

35.7 Metabolic Nitrogen Fixation 973

35.8 Amino Acids and Metabolic Nitrogen Balance 975

35.9 Amino Acids and Nitrogen Transfer 977

35.10 Nitrogen Excretion and the Urea Cycle 978

35.11 Acetyl-CoA, a Central Molecule in Metabolism 981

Review 982

Review Questions 984

Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercise 985

Answers to Practice Exercises 986

Review for Chapters 32–35 987

Appendixes

I. Mathematical Review A-1

II. Using a Scientific Calculator A-11

III. Units of Measurement A-15

IV. Vapor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures A-16

V. Solubility Table A-17

VI. Answers to Selected Exercises A-18

VII. Answers to Putting It Together Review Exercises A-34

Glossary G-1

Photo Credits PC-1

Index I-1