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Test Bank for Understanding Intercultural Communication, 2nd Edition, Stella Ting-Toomey, Leeva C. Chung, ISBN-10: 019973979X, ISBN-13: 9780199739790

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Table of Contents

Part One: Fundamental Concepts in Intercultural Communication
1: Why Study Intercultural Communication?
Practical Reasons to Study Intercultural Communication
Adjusting to Global Workplace Heterogeneity
Adapting to Domestic Workforce Diversity
Engaging in Creative Multicultural Problem Solving
Comprehending the Role of Technology in Global Communication 
Facilitating Better Multicultural Health Care Communication
Enhancing Intercultural Relationship Satisfaction
Fostering Global and Intrapersonal Peace
Deepening Cultural Self-Awareness and Other-Awareness
Culture: A Learned Meaning System
Surface-Level Culture: Popular Culture
Intermediate-Level Culture: Symbols, Meanings, and Norms
Deep-Level Culture: Traditions, Beliefs, and Values
Stamping Your Intercultural Passport
2: What Is Intercultural Communication Flexibility?
Defining Intercultural Communication: A Process Model
Intercultural Communication Process: Overall Characteristics
Intercultural Communication: Meaning Characteristics
Practicing Intercultural Communication Flexibility
Three Content Components: Knowledge, Attitude, and Skills
Three Criteria: Appropriateness, Effectiveness, and Adaptability
Developing Intercultural Communication Flexibility
A Staircase Model
An Essential Hook: A Mindful Perspective
Deepening Intercultural Process Thinking
Process Consciousness: Underlying Principles
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
3: What Are the Essential Cultural Value Patterns?
Functions of Cultural Values
Analyzing Cultural Values
Identity Meaning Function
Explanatory Function
Motivational Function
Ingroup-Outgroup Evaluative Function
Analyzing Cultural Value Dimensions
Discovering Cultural Values
Identity: Individualism-Collectivism Value Pattern
Power: Small-Large Power Distance Value Pattern
Uncertainty: Weak-Strong Uncertainty Avoidance Value Pattern
Sex Roles: Feminine-Masculine Value Pattern
Additional Value Orientation Patterns
Value Orientations: Background Information
Meaning: Activity Value Orientation
Destiny: People-Nature Value Orientation
Time: Temporal Value Orientation
Individual Socialization Development
Independent Versus Interdependent Self-Construal
Horizontal Versus Vertical Self-Construal
Internal Versus External Locus of Control
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
4: What Are the Keys to Understanding Cultural and Ethnic Identities?
Family and Gender Socialization
Families Come in Different Shapes 
Gender Socialization and Interaction Patterns
Group Membership: Intercultural Boundary Crossing
The Process of Acculturation and Enculturation
Systems-Level Factors
Individual-Level Factors
F2F and Network-Level Factors 
Mass Media-Level Factors
Group Affiliation and Identity Formation
Cultural Identity Conceptualization
Ethnic Identity Conceptualization
Ethnic/Racial Identity Change Process
Cultural-Ethnic Identity Typological Model 
Racial-Ethnic Identity Development Model
Multiracial and Biracial Identity
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables 
Part Two: Crossing Cultural and Communication Boundaries Adaptively
5: What Is Culture Shock?
Unpacking Culture Shock
Characteristics of Culture Shock
Pros and Cons of Culture Shock
Approaching Culture Shock: Underlying Factors
Initial Tips To Manage Culture Shock
Intercultural Adjustment: Developmental Patterns
The U-Curve Adjustment Model
The Revised W-Shaped Adjustment Model
Culture Shock: Peaks and Valleys
Reentry Culture Shock
Reentry Culture Shock: Surprising Elements
Resocialization: Different Returnees’ Profiles
Intercultural reality Check: Do-Ables
6: What Is the Connection Between Verbal Communication and Culture?
Human Language: Distinctive Features and Rule Patterns
Distinctive Language Features: Arbitrariness, Abstractness, Meaning-Centeredness, and Creativity
Multiple Rule Patterns: Phonological, Morphological, Syntactic, Semantic, and Pragmatic Rules
Appreciating Diverse Language Functions: 
The Cultural Worldview Function
The Everyday Social Reality Function
The Cognitive Shaping Function 
The Group Membership Identity Function
The Social Change Function
Verbal Communication Styles: A General Framework
Defining Low-Context and High-Context Interaction Patterns
Direct and Indirect Verbal Styles
Self-Enhancement and Self-Humbling Verbal Styles
Beliefs Expressed in Talk and Silence
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
7: What Are the Different Ways to Communicate Nonverbally Across Cultures?
The Impact of Nonverbal Communication
Making Sense of Nonverbal Communication
One Code, Countless Interpretations 
Verbal and Nonverbal Comparisons
Forms of Nonverbal Communication
Physical Appearance 
Facial Expressions
Boundary Regulations
Regulating Interpersonal Boundaries
Environmental Boundaries
Psychological Boundaries
Regulating Time
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
Part Three: Managing Challenges in Intercultural Relationships Flexibly 
8: What Causes Us to Hold Biases Against Outgroups?
Human Perception Tendencies: Some General Principles
Selective Attention
Selective Organization and Labeling
Selective Interpretation 
Biased Intergroup Filters: Ethnocentrism and Stereotypes
Ethnocentrism and Communication
Distances of Indifference, Avoidance, and Disparagement
Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) 
Stereotypes and Communication
Stereotypes: We Are What We Watch 
Marking Ingroup/Outgroup Membership Boundaries
Us versus Them 
Group Membership Struggles
Intergroup Attribution Biases
Shattered Lens: Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism
Prejudice: Multiple Explanations and Functions
Prejudiced Remarks or Innocent Jokes? 
Four Discriminatory Practices
Different Types of Racism
Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
9: How Can We Manage Intercultural Conflict Flexibly?
Intercultural Conflict: Cultural Background Factors
Culture-Based Conflict Lenses
Intercultural Workplace Conflict Grid
Intercultural Conflict Perceptions
Intercultural Conflict Goal Issues
Perceived Scarce Resources
Intercultural Conflict Process Factors
Defining Conflict Styles
Cross-Cultural Conflict Styles
Cross-Ethnic Conflict Styles and Facework
Flexible Intercultural Conflict Skills
Facework Management
Mindful Listening
Cultural Empathy
Mindful Reframing 
Adaptive Code-Switching
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
10: What Are the Challenges in Developing an Intercultural-Intimate Relationship?
Developing Intercultural-Intimate Relationships: Invisible Challenges
Cultural-Ethnic Membership Values
Love Expectations and Expressions
Autonomy-Connection Issues
Communication Decoding Issues
Intercultural-Intimate Relationship Attraction: Facilitating Factors 
Perceived Physical Attractiveness
Perceived Similarity
Cross-Cultural Self-Disclosure Comparisons
Online Disclosure of Affection 
Third Party Matchmakers: Online and Mobile Dating
Intercultural/Interracial Romantic Relationship Development
Intercultural-Intimate Conflict: Obstacles and Stumbling Blocks
The Encounter: Prejudice and Racism
Countering Racism and Prejudice: Coping Strategies
Relational Transgressions and Terminations
Raising Secure Bicultural Children
Bicultural Identity Struggles
Cultivating a Secure Multifaceted Identity
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
11: What Are the Communication Issues Facing a Global Identity?
Wired and On: The Roar of the Internet
The Internet as our Central Station
Wired Communication
The Transformation of Local and Global Identities
The Lens of Television: Identity Imitation
Global Television Impact
Be Hip, be Hot, and Pop Culture Impact
Outsourced Beats: You are What You Can Dance To
You are What you Wear: Pop Culture as Fashion
Who and What are e.netizens?
Defining the Background of e.netizens
Characteristics of an e.netizen Identity
The Dialectics Pulls of an e.netizen 
Spatial Zone Dialectics
Temporal Zone Dialectics
The Tipping Point: Communication Pattern Changes 
Gadget Communication Patterns: Fast and Furious 
Sharing Intimate Partners with a Gadget
Language Styles: Text, Tweet, Talk
Communicating to be Social Change Agents
Present but Virtual
Personal Identities in Flux: The Global Face
Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
12: How Can We Become Ethical Intercultural Communicators?
Intercultural Communication Ethics: Contemporary Issues
Global Standard Procedure and Local Justice Issues 
Corporate Responsibility and Local Customary Practice
Cultural Value Clash and Communication Preference
Multiple Ethical Positions: Assessing Pros and Cons
Ethical Absolutism Position
Ethical Relativism Position
Ethical Universalism Position
Meta-Ethics Contextualism Position
Becoming Ethical and Flexible Intercultural Communicators
Becoming Ethical: Ten Questions to Consider
Becoming Flexible: Final Passport Do-Ables